CAR 10

Haider, M. Z. H. (2012). Extensive Reading in EFL Classroom at Secondary Schools in Bangladesh: Current Practices and Future Possibilities. International Education Studies, 5(3), 126-134.

It is an undeniable fact that the ability to read in a foreign or second language is one of the essential skills required of people living in multilingual and international settings. The fact that different readers read a text with different purposes has led to the innovation of a variety of approaches or methods which are being practiced in many foreign or second language learning contexts.

ER is mentioned in the curriculum, many of its specific features (such as what books to teach or how to teach) are not spelt out in details. As a result, the way ER is being practiced in the classes does not conform to the best practices for teachers and learners.

The use of extensive reading for developing students’ language skills is a relatively new phenomenon in the teaching-learning context of Bangladesh. The teachers, the curriculum experts as well as the testing authority have a concerted role to play for making extensive reading an effective means of teaching English at the secondary schools of Bangladesh. This study throws some lights on the current practices of dealing with extensive reading in Bangladeshi junior secondary schools.


Alzu’bi, M. A. (2014). The Effects of an Extensive Reading Program on Improving English as Foreign Language Proficiency in University Level Education. English Language Teaching, 7(1), 28-36

A student who reads without comprehension is not really reading. However, comprehension will become valueless if reading efficiency does not take into account reading speed, which is usually measured in the number of words read per minute.

Most of the students’ time is spent in translation sentences from Arabic into English, or vice versa, and in doing grammar exercise. Therefore, students fail to get as much comprehensible input in their learning process. In addition, grammar is taught deductively by using the intensive method so students have not learnt grammar meaningfully. However, extensive reading has been much neglected or it is applied in wrong way.

Many of the studies show that extensive reading can effectively improve students’ reading proficiency in foreign language or second language learning (Anderson, et al., 1988).

Therefore, the study focuses on examining the impact of the ER on Jordan universities students’ reading comprehension achievement, grammar and vocabulary knowledge in English.

ER improved students’ vocabulary, developed good reading habit and enabled students to increase their knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. Also, ER improved students’ reading comprehension achievement. In addition, ER developed better understanding of the students’ language and increases culture knowledge.


Guo, S.C. (2012). Using Authentic Materials for Extensive Reading to Promote English Proficiency. English Language Teaching, 5(8), 196-207.

Both common sense and research have shown evidence that students improve their reading by reading. Copious studies already exist in support of extensive reading (Krashion, 2004; Pikulski & Chard, 2005; Silva, 2009; Therrien, 2004). By extensive reading, it is meant that students read for a significant amount of time. It is an approach beyond skill development; an activity students “[choose] to do for a variety of personal, social, or academic reasons (Day & Bamford, 2000, p. 4). Susser and Robb (1991) agree. They claim that extensive reading involves reading a large variety of materials for general understanding and usually obtaining pleasure from reading.

Students do not often take any initiative to locate foreign language resources outside of class or engage in reading beyond a course requirement. Educators attribute the decline of students’ reading engagement to the advent of multimedia (Li & Renganathan, 2008).

The finding revealed that extensive reading using simplified materials has proven to enhance students’ reading habits, reading speed, and vocabulary knowledge. Most importantly, students received tremendous pleasure from reading these selections, at the same time they were able to nurture their intrinsic motivation for continuous reading.



Chen, C. Et. Al (2013). The Effects of Extensive Reading via E-Books on Tertiary Level EFL Students’ Reading Attitude, Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12(2), 303-313.

The writers investigate the effect of extensive reading from e-book for students’ reading comprehension and vocabulary. Extensive reading or usually called as reading for pleasure is the reading activity which the material is decided by the students. The material is based on their interest. Therefore, the students feel enjoy when reading the book.

In the article, the book that is used by the students is electronic-book (e-book). So, they do not need to have the printed one. They just need a mobile phone or laptop to get the material on the internet.

The findings in the present study provide strong support for the hypothesis that the extensive reading of e-books facilitates Taiwanese tertiary level EFL technological students’ English reading attitude, reading comprehension, and vocabulary growth.


Albeckay, E. M. (2014). Developing Reading Skills through Critical Reading Programme amongst Undergraduate EFL Students in Libya. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 123, 175 – 181.

The lack of reading skills in EFL was the reason behind the study was conducted. Besides, reading skill becomes an important skill in EFL teaching for centuries. The objective of the study is to develop the reading skill by using critical reading programme.

The sample of the study was randomly chosen from Sebha University which divided into two groups (control and research). The writer was using o mixed methods; quantitative method and qualitative method in conducting the study.

The finding of the study stated that critical reading skill is significant for EFL learners to develop reading skill. Furthermore, critical reading skill has connection with the reading skill.

As a whole, the programme improved the reading ability of good students specifically in these kinds of critical reading skills. At the same time, the programme did not raise the abilities of the outstanding students as it did not add anything for them and this is as a result of their abilities and individual differences.


Chen, C-H. et. Al. (2013). The Effect of Extensive Reading Via E-books on Tertiary Level EFL Students’ Reading Attitude, Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 12 (2), 303-312.
One of the objectives of education in 21st century is dealing with the multicultural awareness. There are many preparations in conducting the teaching process to achieve the objective such as; understand the differences in terms of value, communication and behavior.

The writer stated that cooperative learning and teaching contributes can encourage the students’ independent thinking (finding their own meaning of cultures and solving the problem). Besides that, students can give respond actively in the given communication.

Moreover, the writers stated that group work will also enhance their understanding of other cultures. In the group work activity, students will share their ideas and their views regarding certain cultures.

In the conclusion, the writer said that to achieve one of the goals of education in 21st century, teachers need prepare to teach about cultural awareness. By designing syllabus regarding the matter and applying the method into their teaching and learning process, the goal might be achieved.


Sheu, S. P-H. (2004), The Effects of Extensive Reading on Learners’ Reading Ability Development. Journal of National Taipei Teachers College,17(2), 213~228

Cross-cultural communication is essential in a globalized economy, society, and learning environment. The ability to take on another person’s perspective and understand a different culture is an important skill.

To promote cross-cultural communication, I encouraged my students to collaborate with each other in the classroom by working in groups and providing constructive feedback, as well as creating an individual professional presentation using digital media.

The writer in teaching the cross-cultural communication used presentation as digital media. The first day of teaching, she tried to create a conducive environment in the classroom through cooperative learning. After that, she used ‘jigsaw’ method to communicate from every other students. In the end, her teaching result is students get more motivated and excited in the teaching and learning process.

One of the effective outcomes of cross-cultural communication was the students’ sharing their culture with each other in small groups. As they shared and exchanged information about their culture. By applying my experience in delivering professional presentations, I was able to empower students and prepare them for language use in business settings.


Stefenel, D. (2013). How much culture is in conflict communication? A cross-cultural approach of two European countries. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 2691-2696.

There has been a debate around whether the way we communicate is educated or culturally inherited. This issue becomes more visible during arguments or in cross-cultural settings.

Understanding the behavior of communication of some cultures is necessary for scholar, economic, social, culture and educational agents.

The writer stated that there are two hypotheses in the study they are; the collaborative approach to conflict resolution is influenced by cultural factors more than contextual one, and Romanians and Greeks who are preoccupied with preserving a positive mutual face for their speech are predisposed to use mainly collaborative strategies during conflict resolution.

By using questionnaire the findings was related to the cultural background and imprints which become transparent during our research and which are consumed in conflict dialogues by the means of cooperative discursive practices.

In this case, this proved to be determined mostly by the concern manifested for mutual favorable relation maintenance during vocal conflict. With regards to communication differences between the two investigated groups, Greeks proved to have a higher concern for integrative strategies, using passive and indirect speech tactics more often, e.g.: private discussion.



Frank, J. (2013). Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom. English Teaching Forum, 4(4), 2-11.

Since there is a lack of consensus on how to introduce cultural elements into the lesson, the writer’s point in the article is how the EFL teachers can incorporate the cultural knowledge and understand within the context of their English language classes.

The writer says that teachers can give guidance about how to think, make, and do to their students in their own cultures by holding the classroom discussion.

There are some strategies in conducting the classroom discussion. EFL teachers can make their own cultural awareness with these instructions; determining the aspects of culture that would like to explore, conducting research on the sites related to the cultures, identifying the types of information that might be found by students, and designing questions.

Students cannot be considered to have mastered a foreign language until they understand the cultural contexts in which the target language is spoken (NSFLEP, 1996 in Frank, 2013)

Teachers need to go beyond introducing the target culture and incorporate a framework that enables students to understand the social aspects of culture as well.


Al-Momani, H. (2016). Rabbit Proof Fence: A Struggle for Cultural Existence. Australian International Academic Centre, Australia, 7(6), 276-279.

Rabbit Proof Fence is a Pilkingston’s novel which is a real story telling about three aboriginal girls that was separated from their families. In the novel, these girls do not want their freedom to be limited that they try to back to their hometown.

Do not care about the obstacles and the struggle they will face, the girls want to release from colonialism which make them separated from their own family.

Here in the article, the writers stated that Rabbit Proof Fence reflects on the aboriginal people’s hard work for their own cultural existence. The way the fight for the cultural existence regardless the pain that they feel shows us that cultural existence need to be preserved.